3-Dimensional Measurement Measurement reading recorded in relation to a 3-dimensional coordinate system in the 3 axis X, Y, and Z
Aerospace Aerospace comprises air and space travel, manufacturing and associated research. Aerospace is a very diverse industry, with a multitude of commercial, industrial and military applications. Aerospace is the study of how things fly. It deals with force, which is a push or pull that transfers energy to an object. In fact there are 4 types of forces when dealing with an airplane: drag, thrust, gravity, and lift. Thrust is the complete opposite of Drag. Drag is what slows the plane down, and thrust is what propels it. Thrust is usually created by Jet Engines. The other two forces: gravity and lift, are also opposites. Gravity pulls the plane down, and lift carries it up.
AMCW Amplitude Modulated Continuous Wave lasers operate by modulating the power of the emitted light with a sine wave of a given frequency. The returned energy waveform is delayed by the travel time Dt and appears proportionately phase-shifted when compared to the emitted energy. The distance is proportional to the phase, up to an ambiguity at a 2p phase difference: z = f*Dr/2p The range, z, is thus proportional to the phase difference f and the ambiguity interval, DR. The Z+F laser improves on the usual AMCW method by using a dual-frequency amplitude-modulated signal. The receiver measures the phase difference between the original and returned laser signal at both modulation frequencies. The Z+F laser uses a combination of two modulation frequencies to provide improved accuracy over standard single modulation schemes.
Angle of Incidence An angle of incidence is the angle between a beam incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal. The beam can be formed by any wave: optical, acoustical, microwave, X-ray etc.
Angular Calibration The process whereby the angular magnitude of the output of a measuring instrument is related to the angular magnitude of the input force driving the instrument and the difference (offset) is determined.
ANSI The American National Standards Institute process serves all standardization efforts in the United States by providing and promoting a process that withstands scrutiny, while protecting the rights and interests of every participant. In essence, ANSI standards quicken the market acceptance of products while making clear how to improve the safety of those products for the protection of consumers.
Articulated Arm 6 or 7 degree-of-freedom portable coordinate measuring machine (CMM) used for dimensional/geometric inspection, reverse engineering, etc.
ASPRS / IMPLF American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) is a scientific association serving over 7,000 professional members around the world. Stated mission is to advance knowledge and improve understanding of mapping sciences to promote the responsible applications of photogrammetry, remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), and supporting technologies.
Assembly Alignment The event of positioning and orienting multiple components of a part or system where the 3-dimensional alignment and placement are critical.
ASTM (SDO) American Society for Testing and Materials is one of the largest voluntary standards development organizations in the world-a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. Known for their high technical quality and market relevancy, ASTM International standards have an important role in the information infrastructure that guides design, manufacturing and trade in the global economy.
Bearing Box Repair/Assembly The service of disassembling, diagnosing, repairing, and reporting various bearing box complications for heavy industry.
CAD Model Inspection Physical/dimensional inspection of a mold, part, etc. in order to verify specific features and/or complex 3-dimensional surfaces relative to a CAD model for “as is” to “as designed” comparison.
Cam2 Measure Training Service provided on-site to train and better familiarize Faro Cam2 users for portable CMM measurement.
Catia (.model) Computer Aided Three dimensional Interactive Application is a multi-platform PLM/CAD/CAM/CAE commercial software suite developed by Dassault Systems and marketed world-wide by IBM. Commonly referred to as a 3D Product Lifecycle Management software suite, CATIA supports multiple stages of product development (CAx). The stages range from conceptualization, through design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM), until analysis (CAE).
Clash Detection Clash detection enables the effective identification, inspection and reporting of interferences in a 3D project model.
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of a wide range of computer-based tools that assist engineers, architects and other design professionals in their design activities. It is the main geometry authoring tool within the Product Lifecycle Management process and involves both software and sometimes special-purpose hardware. Current packages range from 2D vector based drafting systems to 3D solid and surface modelers.
COR Station GPS stations usually near rivers, lakes, or oceans controlled by the NGS and tracked by the coast guard. These stations are set in place for long periods of time to determine exact location and then monitored for position change. If position change occurs, adjustments can be made to compensate for the error in which has taken place.
Degrees of Freedom Physics: Any of the minimum number of coordinates required to specify completely the motion of a mechanical system. Any of the independent thermodynamic variables, such as pressure, temperature, or composition, required to specify a system with a given number of phases and components. Robotics: The amount of movement available in a system.
Designed Characteristics Certain criteria may it be chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. specified by the design team throughout the development of or revisions to a specific product necessary in the construction of that particular product.
Diffusion Curve The diminishment in the strength of a light (laser) beam over a distance range altering the laser’s spot size and impacting the results.
Dimensional Certification Process for dimensionally inspecting 2-dimensional features and 3-dimensional objects for quality requirements and operational purposes.
Dimensional Inspection The measurement process used for examination of a 2-dimensional feature or a 3-dimensional object.
Discrete Point Measurement Discrete point measurement is done at a constant velocity with zero acceleration during the point of contact. The touch displaces the probe’s stylus tip, generating a trigger signal. This intermittent go-touch-retract motion and need for constant velocity at touch mean that the fastest touch-trigger probes register about 12 measurements per second. In practice, however, a much slower rate is normal. Single, point-at-a-time measurement makes touch-trigger probing inefficient for most form inspection, where hundreds of measurement points might be required to fully define and qualify a part feature for close-tolerance form or fit.
Equipment Alignment The service of positioning and orienting multiple components of a manufacturing process or system where the 3-dimensional alignment and placement are critical.
Equipment Assembly See Assembly Alignment/Equipment Alignment
Faro Arm (Platinum) Portable CMM unit capable of excellent dimensional repeatability and accuracy for inspection, reverse engineering, etc.
Faro Equipment Faro is an industry leading manufacturer of portable CMM units such as laser trackers, articulated arms, and laser scanning equipment for projects both large and small.
Faro Equipment Training Service provided on-site to train and better familiarize Faro equipment users for portable CMM measurement.
Feature Fit Alignment of a tangible item to its virtual CAD image through locating three or more point reducible physical features (primary, secondary, and tertiary) on the part and assigning them to their nominal locations within the CAD model.
Feature Resolution The ability to define the “edges” between a specific feature and the background of a scan which is a function of both the range and the grid of the measurement volume collected. Ex. Placing two plates together and scanning where they appear as one. Then gradually separating the plates and reinspecting again and again until the separation or crack between the plates is established as a feature. This in turn would be the feature resolution of the survey.
FIATECH Facilities Integration and Automation Technologies provides global leadership in identifying and accelerating the development, demonstration and deployment of fully integrated and automated technologies to deliver the highest business value throughout the life cycle of all types of capital projects.
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) In its application, the object or system is represented by a geometrically similar model consisting of multiple, linked, simplified representations of discrete regions — i.e., finite elements. Equations of equilibrium, in conjunction with applicable physical considerations such as compatibility and constitutive relations, are applied to each element, and a system of simultaneous equations is constructed. The system of equations is solved for unknown values using the techniques of linear algebra or nonlinear numerical schemes, as appropriate. While being an approximate method, the accuracy of the FEA method can be improved by refining the mesh in the model using more elements and nodes.
Gearbox Repair/Assembly The service of disassembling, diagnosing, repairing, and reporting various gearbox complications for heavy industry.
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is a symbolic language used on engineering drawings and computer generated three-dimensional solid models (CAD) for explicitly describing nominal geometry and its allowable variation. It is often referred to by the abbreviation, GD&T. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing is used to define the nominal geometry of parts and assemblies, to define the allowable variation in form and possibly size of individual features, and to define the allowable variation between features.
Global Instrument Uncertainty The overall uncertainty of the measurement instrument’s location relative in global coordinates.
High Precision GPS Global Positioning System possessing accuracies to the centimeter level. Ex. — CMT, Trimble, Sokkia, Navcom Tech., Symmetricom, etc.
IGES (.igs) The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) (pronounced eye-jess) defines a neutral data format that allows the digital exchange of information among Computer-aided design (CAD) systems. Using IGES, a CAD user can exchange product data models in the form of circuit diagrams, wireframe, freeform surface or solid modeling representations. Applications supported by IGES include traditional engineering drawings, models for analysis, and other manufacturing functions.
Infra-Red Laser Infrared light lies between the visible and microwave portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared light has a range of wavelengths, just like visible light has wavelengths that range from red light to violet. “Near infrared” light is closest in wavelength to visible light and “far infrared” is closer to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The longer, far infrared wavelengths are about the size of a pin head and the shorter, near infrared ones are the size of cells, or are microscopic.
iQvolution A leader in 3-dimensional laser scanning and modeling services based out of Baden-Württemberg, Germany.
Large Volume Precision Measurement Dimensional inspection services provided for large scale objects such as aircraft, building structure, heavy equipment, etc.
Laser Scanner A 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly color. The collected data can then be used to construct digital, three dimensional models that are used in a wide variety of applications. These devices are used extensively by industry in the production of such things as movies and video games. Other applications include industrial design and prototyping, computer vision and documentation of cultural artifacts.
Laser Tracker Service Portable CMM dimensional inspection with excellent repeatability and accuracy for inspection, equipment alignment, reverse engineering, etc.
Laser Tracker Training Service provided on-site to train and better familiarize laser tracker users for portable CMM measurement.
LIDAR LIght Detection And Ranging A technique used to detect atmospheric constituents or related parameters such as atmospheric extinction coefficient. Light is produced in a modulated source and the resulting backscattered or reflected light is analyzed to quantify some property of the atmosphere. What can you do with LIDAR? Measure distance, speed, rotation, or chemical composition and concentration of a remote target where the target can be a clearly defined object, such as a vehicle, or a diffuse object such as a smoke plume or clouds.
Light Reflectivity In optics, reflectivity is the reflectance (the ratio of reflected power to incident power, generally expressed in decibels or percentage) at the surface of a material so thick that the reflectance does not change with increasing thickness.
Lineshaft Repair/Assembly The service of disassembling, diagnosing, repairing, and reporting various rolling mill lineshaft complications.
Metrology Service Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) as “the science of measurement, embracing both experiment and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of Science and Technology.”
Modeling The act of creating 3D computer graphics, a 3D model is a mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object (either inanimate or living). It can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in a computer simulation of physical phenomena. 3D models are most often created with special software applications called 3D modelers. Being a collection of data (points and other information), 3D models can be created by hand or algorithmically (procedural modeling). Though they most often exist virtually (on a computer or a file on disk), even a description of such a model on paper can be considered a 3D model.
Modulation Transfer Frequency In Optics the modulation transfer function describes the ability of an optical system to transfer contrast. For example, if a series of alternating black and white bars is drawn at a specific spatial frequency, when these bars are observed, the image will be somewhat degraded. The white bars may appear somewhat darker and the black bars will be somewhat lighter. By definition, the modulation transfer function at a given spatial frequency is defined as follows: MTF (f) = M (image) / M (source) Where the modulation (M), is derived from the Luminance (L) of either the image or the source as follows:
M = (Lmax – Lmin) / (Lmax + Lmin)
Mold Inspection Process of 3-dimensional inspection of molds or castings for quality requirements.
Motion Calibration To dimensionally inspect an object in motion for path routing, excessive vibration, deflection, etc.
Motion Evaluation See Motion Calibration
National Geodetic Society National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and manages a national coordinate system. This network, the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS), provides the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a multitude of scientific and engineering applications.
NIST / CMSG National Institute of Standards and Technology: NIST Laboratories, located in both Gaithersburg, Md., and Boulder, Colo., conduct research in a wide variety of physical and engineering sciences. The labs respond to industry needs for measurement methods, tools, data, and technology. NIST researchers collaborate with colleagues in industry, academic institutions, and other government agencies.
Nuclear Nuclear power is the controlled use of nuclear reactions to release energy for work including propulsion, heat, and the generation of electricity. Use of nuclear power to do significant useful work is currently limited to nuclear fission and radioactive decay. Nuclear energy is produced when a fissile material, such as uranium-235 (235U), is concentrated such that nuclear fission takes place in a controlled chain reaction and creates heat Ñ which is used to boil water, produce steam, and drive a steam turbine. The turbine can be used for mechanical work and also to generate electricity. Nuclear power provides 7% of the world’s energy and 15.7% of the world’s electricity and is used to power most military submarines and aircraft carriers.
NURB Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline – Where in a graphics environment (2-D or 3-D) a curving series of connected arcs exists from a sequence of control points within a CAD, CAM, or some animation type of software. Once identified, multiple NURBS can then be used to create a NURB surface which takes no geometric shape, also considered a complex surface.
Optical Spectrum The visible spectrum (or sometimes optical spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation in this range of wavelengths is called visible light or simply light. There are no exact bounds to the visible spectrum; a typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm, although some people may be able to perceive wavelengths from 380 to 780 nm. A light-adapted eye typically has its maximum sensitivity at around 555 nm, in the green region of the optical spectrum. The spectrum does not, however, contain all the colors that the human eyes and brain can distinguish. Brown and pink are absent. Wavelengths visible to the eye also pass through the “optical window”, the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which passes largely unattenuated through the Earth’s atmosphere (although blue light is scattered more than red light, which is the reason the sky is blue). The response of the human eye is defined by subjective testing, but the atmospheric windows are defined by physical measurement. The “visible window” is so called because it overlaps the human visible response spectrum; the near infrared (NIR) windows lie just out of human response window, and the Medium Wavelength IR (MWIE) and Long Wavelength or Far Infrared (FIR or LWIR) are far beyond the human response region.
Point Cloud In computer science, a point cloud is a set of three-dimensional points describing the outlines or surface features of an object, such as that produced by a 3D digitizer. In manufacturing, a point cloud usually refers to set of densely sampled or high-definition dimensional measurements of a manufactured part’s surface so as to enable comparison of the actual manufactured or fabricated part to a (usually faceted or vectorized) “computer-aided design” / “computer-aided manufacturing” (CAD/CAM) model.
Portable Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) A coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) is a device for dimensional measuring. It is an electrical/mechanical system designed to accurately and precisely read the three dimensional location of a measuring probe to determine the coordinates of points on the surface of a workpiece.
Precision Alignment See Assembly Alignment
ProE (.prt) Pro/ENGINEER (commonly referred to as Pro/E or Pro) is a parametric feature-based three-dimensional Solid modeling CAD software created by Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC). Pro/ENGINEER is a mechanical engineering and design CAD tool capable of creating complex 3D models, assemblies, and 2D measured drawings; it does not support architectural or civil engineering practices.
Project Accuracy Three factors impact project accuracy: number of projects in the SPR (Software Productivity Research) knowledge base similar to the project being estimated; project sizing method; and percentage of organizational attribute questions addressed by the user.
Quality Control In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. These systems are often developed in conjunction with other business and engineering disciplines using a cross-functional approach.
Robotics Calibration Dimensional inspection of a robotics system in order to identify path routing, excessive vibration, clashing, etc.
Rolling Mill Equipment Repair/Assembly The service of disassembling, diagnosing, repairing, and reporting various rolling mill equipment complications.
Reverse Engineering Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of discovering the technological principles of a device or object or system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. It often involves taking something (e.g. a mechanical device, an electronic component, a software program) apart and analyzing its workings in detail, usually to try to make a new device or program that does the same thing without copying anything from the original. The verb form is to reverse engineer.
Reverse Design See Reverse Engineer
Robust Centering Statistics Bundling type adjustment from centers through RMS calculations where the RMS is run then an adjustment is made and the process is repeated over until the error is minimal.
Root Mean Square (RMS) The root-mean-square (RMS) is mostly used as a part of other statistics, such as the standard deviation. The root mean square is a measure of the magnitude of a set of numbers. It gives a sense for the typical size of the numbers. TO CALCULATE RMS: First, square all the values. Next, take the average of the squares. Then take the square root of the average. The RMS is always the same as or just a little bit larger than the average of the unsigned values.
Scan Data Data collected by a laser scanner typically used to digitize a 3-dimensional part or create a virtual environment of an existing volume of space such as a room or large structure.
Spatial Frequency A measure of how rapidly a property changes in space. A commonly used form of visual stimulus consists of vertical bars where the lightness varies according to a sinusoidal function. In this simple case the spatial frequency of the stimulus is just the frequency of the sinusoid used to generate the pattern. In general stimuli with fine detail including sharp edges have high spatial frequency while those where the stimulus properties change more slowly in space have low spatial frequency.
Speckle Speckle is a mottled pattern that arises when laser light falls on a non-specular reflecting surface. Lasers with high spatial and temporal coherence properties are likely to produce dramatic speckle effects. Thus, gas lasers like HeNe types are more likely to exhibit this effect than laser diodes. A few ways to avoid this: 1. Increase the spatial frequency of the speckle so that it is so high it ceases to be a problem. 2. Use only specular objects and sources. 3. Decrease the temporal and/or spatial coherence of your laser beam by running it through something like a rotating diffuser.
Step (.stp) The Standard for The Exchange of Product model data is used to provide a mechanism that is capable of describing product data throughout the life cycle of a product, independent from any particular system. The nature of this description makes it suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases and archiving. Step files are typically used in CAD and CAM applications.
Surface Texture The repetitive or random deviation from the nominal surface that forms the three dimensional surface topography. Includes lay, waviness, roughness, and flaws. Any manufactured surface has irregularities due partly to the nature of the material but to a greater extent to the finishing operation used.
Topology Topology is the mathematical study of the properties that are preserved through deformations, twistings, and stretchings of objects. Tearing, however, is not allowed. A circle is topologically equivalent to an ellipse (into which it can be deformed by stretching) and a sphere is equivalent to an ellipsoid. Similarly, the set of all possible positions of the hour hand of a clock is topologically equivalent to a circle (i.e., a one-dimensional closed curve with no intersections that can be embedded in two-dimensional space), the set of all possible positions of the hour and minute hands taken together is topologically equivalent to the surface of a torus (i.e., a two-dimensional a surface that can be embedded in three-dimensional space), and the set of all possible positions of the hour, minute, and second hands taken together are topologically equivalent to a three-dimensional object.
Wear Analysis A method used to identify the wear of an object or tool due to friction, abrasion, corrosion, etc. by closely examining the working surfaces and edges. Preventative maintenance care and inspection may prevent pre-mature failure and prolong the life of the object or tool.